Ideological differences have created problems, especially with regard to human rights. The 2004 Afghan Constitution protects women`s rights, such as language and education, as well as freedom of the press, including freedom of expression, both oppressed under the Taliban regime in Afghanistan. Khalilzad, Ghani, Abdullah and several other senior Afghan officials all said that these rights should be protected   and not sacrificed in a peace agreement.  Afghanistan`s first lady, Rula Ghani, is committed to protecting women`s rights.  Afghan journalists have called for the press to be protected in all possible peace agreements.  To date, two peace agreements have been signed: an agreement between the Afghan government of President Ashraf Ghani and the militant group Hezb-i Islami Gulbuddin, September 22, 2016 and a conditional agreement between the United States and the Taliban on February 29, 2020  that calls for the withdrawal of U.S. troops within 14 months if the Taliban comply with the terms of the agreement.   Since September 2020, talks have been under way in Doha between representatives of the Afghan state and the Taliban. The Afghan government refused to include the agreement in its agreements with the Taliban because the government had not participated in the agreement. To solve the problem, the February agreement is mentioned, but the guidelines referred to at least one other framework document, officials said. The success of the peace negotiations depends in part on the conclusion of the parties concerned that they can no longer maintain the recent scale of the violence.
But it also depends on whether they change their perception of conflict as a zero-sum game, a game where what one wins loses the other. The four-part agreement between the United States and the Taliban has forced the United States to withdraw most of its troops from Afghanistan, which it is doing. In exchange, the Taliban assured that Afghanistan would no longer be used as a base for attacks against the United States and its allies. It also agreed to cooperate with the Afghan government. Representatives of the Afghan government and the Taliban said they had reached a tentative agreement to advance peace talks, their first written agreement in 19 years of war. The Taliban wanted the withdrawal agreement signed with the United States in February to be seen as the starting point for the talks. The Afghan government wanted recognition of a more democratic and political negotiating base. U.S. Special Representative for Afghan Reconciliation Zalmay Khalilzad said the two sides had agreed on a “tripartite agreement that codifies the rules and procedures of their negotiations on a political roadmap and a comprehensive ceasefire.” It is not entirely clear how the two sides have resolved their procedural differences, but two Afghan officials familiar with the talks said Wednesday`s agreement was reached without the official name or the mention of the “Islamic Emirate” in the documents. At a conference in Kabul, the Danes said the insurgents did not believe in a peaceful solution to the conflict. “We [the Afghan government] have neither signed nor ratified this agreement [the U.S.-Taliban peace agreement] and, from our point of view and commitments, we are not responsible for the details of its contents,” he added. The deal comes after the two sides found themselves on the brink last month.
The Taliban and government negotiators agreed on the principle of about two dozen procedural points, Afghan officials said, but a concrete agreement was reached by President Ashraf Ghani, who instructed the government`s negotiating team to include at least one other condition: that the government, with its official name, the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan , be included in the guidance documents.